See Symbols and
used in the Services Profiles.
GDP (Gross domestic
the sum of output within the country’s territory minus the sum of intermediate consumption
(increased by taxes net of subsidies on products). Sources: World Bank,
Eurostat and national sources.
Services value added, Employment in
services and FDI
in services - Stocks
the following ISIC Rev. 3 sectors: wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor
vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods; hotels and restaurants;
transport, storage and communications; financial intermediation; real estate
renting and business activities; education; health and social work; other community,
social and personal services; private households with employed persons.
For some economies, data cover the
following ISIC Rev.4 sectors: wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor
vehicles and motorcycles; transportation and storage; accommodation and food
service activities; information and communication; financial and insurance
activities; real estate activities; professional, scientific and technical
activities; administrative and support service activities education; human
health and social work activities; arts, entertainment and recreation; other
service activities; activities of households as employers; undifferentiated
goods- and services-producing activities of households for own use.
For countries sourced from Eurostat,
the classification used is NACE Rev. 2. For the United States is NAICS. Despite
the different industry classifications used, economies' statistics are largely
comparable. Sources: UNSD, UNCTAD, OECD, ILO, Eurostat, and national
services value added cover
transportation services, telecommunications services, finance and insurance
Commercial services equal services minus
"government services, not included elsewhere". Sources: IMF and
WTO estimates (August 2012).
communications services; construction; insurance services; financial services;
computer and information services; royalties and licence fees; other business
services; personal, cultural and recreational services. Sources: IMF and WTO
estimates (August 2012).
reflects the objective of obtaining a lasting interest by a resident entity in
one economy ("direct investor") in an entity resident in an economy
other than that of the investor ("direct investment enterprise"). Sources: OECD, UNCTAD
Total services sectors with
has been established by the WTO Secretariat on the basis of available
information and in the light of the Services Sectoral Classification List (MTN.GNS/W/120). The total number of sub-sectors is in the order of 160. Source: WTO.
Affiliates Trade in Services) statistics refer to foreign affiliates for which
foreign investors own more than 50 per cent of the voting power or equity
interest. Sales measure gross operating revenues, less rebates, discounts and
returns. In the profiles, FATS sales refer to affiliates primarily engaged in
services activities and exclude wholesale and retail trade and repair
activities. Sources: WTO estimates based on OECD and Eurostat data as well
as national sources.
Gross fixed capital
a measure of the net investment by enterprises, government and households in
the domestic economy in fixed capital assets (i.e machinery and
buildings). Sources: UNSD, OECD and Eurostat.
Unless otherwise indicated, inward
and outward FDI, value added and employment cover the transportation
and storage industry (ISIC Rev. 3 categories from I-60 to I-63 or ISIC Rev. 4
categories from H-49 to H-53). Sources: UNSD, OECD, UNCTAD, Eurostat, ILO,
as well as national sources.
services (Balance of Payments) cover sea, air and other including land,
internal waterway, space and pipeline transport services that are performed by
residents of one economy for those of another, and that involve the carriage of
passengers, the movement of goods (freight), rentals (charters) of carriers
with crew, and related supporting and auxiliary services. Sources: IMF and
WTO estimates (August 2012).
Number of merchant
ships registered at a given date in a country and authorised to navigate at
sea. DWT (deadweight ton) is a weight measure of a vessel's carrying capacity. Source:
measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes, and vice
versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Source:
by sea represents
the weight of all goods and livestock in external trade loaded on and unloaded
from sea-going vessels of all flags at the ports of the country. Sources: UN
Monthly Bulletin of Statistics (MBS), UNCTAD and Eurostat.
Passengers - Freight
- International freight - International passengers refer to revenue
scheduled traffic of airline(s) registered in the country. A
passenger-kilometre is performed when a passenger is carried by one kilometre.
A ton-kilometre equals to the tons of freight carried by the kilometres flown.
Sources: ICAO and Eurostat.
Road lines, total
includes all the roads in country. Sources: International Road
Federation (IRF) supplemented by World Bank estimates, Eurostat.
Passengers is the number of
passengers transported by road multiplied by the kilometres travelled. Freight
is the volume of goods transported by road vehicles, measured in
millions of tons multiplied by the kilometres travelled. Sources: International Road Federation (IRF) supplemented by World Bank estimates,
to goods which having been loaded on a road vehicle in the country, left the
country by road and were unloaded in another country. Sources: UNECE and
Rail lines, total
includes all rail lines reported from the country. Sources: International Union of Railways (UIC), World Bank and Eurostat.
Passengers is the number of
passengers transported by rail multiplied by the kilometres travelled. Freight
is the volume of goods transported by rail, measured in millions of
tons multiplied by the kilometres travelled. Sources: International Union of Railways (UIC) and Eurostat.
indicated, inward and outward FDI and value added cover the
telecommunications industry (ISIC Rev. 3 category I-642 or ISIC Rev. 4 J-61). Sources:
UNSD, OECD, Eurostat as well as national sources.
services (Balance of Payments) encompass the transmission of sound, images
or other information by telephone, telex, telegram, radio and television cable
and broadcasting, satellite, electronic mail, facsimile services etc.,
including business network services, teleconferencing and support services.
Also included are cellular telephone services, internet backbone services and
on-line access services, including provision of access to the internet.
Eurostat and WTO estimates (August 2012).
Total telephone subscribers refers to the sum of
main telephone lines and cellular mobile subscribers. Aggregate calculated by
the WTO on the basis of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) free
Mobile phone subscribers refers to the
subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service and provides access to
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using cellular technology, including
number of pre-paid SIM cards active during the past three months. This includes
both analogue and digital cellular systems (IMT-2000 (Third Generation, 3G) and
4G subscriptions, but excludes mobile broadband subscriptions via data cards or
USB modems. Subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked
mobile radio, telepoint or radio paging, and telemetry services should also be
excluded. This should include all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer
voice communications. Source: International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
Internet users refers to the
estimated number of Internet users out of total population. This includes those
using the Internet from any device (including mobile phones) in the last 12
months. Source: International
Telecommunication Union (ITU).
Broadband internet subscribers refers to
subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This can include
for example cable modem, DSL, fibre-to-the-home/building and other fixed
(wired) broadband subscriptions. This total is measured irrespective of the
method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data
communications (including the Internet) via mobile cellular networks. If
countries use a different definition of broadband, this should be indicated in
a note. It should exclude technologies listed under wireless broadband
Telecommunication Union (ITU) and Eurostat.
are servers using encryption technology in internet transactions. Source:
Finance and Insurance
otherwise indicated, inward and outward FDI, value added and employment
cover the financial intermediation industry (ISIC Rev. 3 category J or ISIC
Rev. 4 K). Sources: UNSD, OECD, ILO, Eurostat as well as national sources.
Financial services (Balance of Payments) cover financial
intermediation and auxiliary services provided by banks, stock exchanges,
factoring enterprises, credit card enterprises, and other enterprises. Sources:
IMF, Eurostat, and WTO estimates (August 2012).
credit by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a
gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is
net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks,
as well as other banking institutions. Sources: IMF; World Bank and OECD for
Interest rate spread is the interest rate
charged by banks on loans to prime customers (lending rate) minus the interest
rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits
(deposit rate). Source: IMF.
Market capitalization of companies listed
on the country's stock exchange(s) is the share price multiplied by the number
of shares outstanding. Sources: Standard & Poor's; World Bank and OECD
for GDP estimates.
Insurance services (Balance of Payments) cover the provision
of various types of insurance to non residents by resident insurance
enterprises, and vice versa, for example, freight insurance, direct insurance
(e.g. life) and reinsurance. Sources: IMF, Eurostat and WTO estimates
Insurance density represents the
average insurance spending per capita in a given country. It is calculated by
dividing direct gross premiums (total premiums paid) by the population. It
excludes cross-border business. Source: SwissRe, Sigma No.3/2012.
Insurance penetration represents the
relative importance of the insurance industry in the domestic economy. It is
calculated as the ratio of direct gross premiums (total premiums paid) to GDP. It excludes cross-border business. Source: SwissRe, Sigma No.3/2012.
Symbols and Abbreviations
Thousands of deadweight tons
Thousands of twenty-foot equivalent
Economic Integration Agreements
Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign Affiliates Trade in Services
General Agreement on Trade in
Gross Domestic Product